Archivi tag: css

Responsive navigation menu

Giorgio Bongiorni

Telecommunication Engineer with more than 5 years experience in web development and SEO campaigns. Favourite languages are HTML5, PHP5, MySql, CSS3 and jQuery.

Latest posts by Giorgio Bongiorni (see all)

In the last year it has become very important to adapt our website layout to user screen size, in order to improve navigation experience and offer a usable way to present information. One of the first elements which are seen from users is the navigation menu: for this reason it’s important to design it to be intuitive and user-friendly. In this article we will introduce two techniques to create a responsive navigation menu: smart button and select menu.

Smart button menu

A first way to build a responsive navigation menu is to create a smart button. The first step is to create a complete navigation header, composed of a logo floated on the left, and a navigation bar and a smart button floated on the right (smart button is built via jQuery separately to keep HTML code clean). We can also add a little bit of CSS to improve presentation or influence link hover state (you can see it in the snippet below).

Now, thanks to CSS media queries, we can say that if user screen width is above 550px (you can change this breakpoint value depending on your needs), we show the navigation bar and hide smart button. When screen width decreases under 550px, navigation bar is displayed as a 100%-width block, placed under logo and hidden. The smart button is instead shown floated as a little block on the right.

A little jQuery script is then added to bind an event listener to button click: the action is obviously to toggle navigation bar visibility. Below you can find the link to the described code. To see it in action, simply resize result window until the CSS breakpoint triggers. You can customize all parameters you want, starting from media query parameters and logo url. If you want to create a new HTML document, please remember to include a call to jQuery library and include the script into a “document ready” callback.

Responsive navigation menu (smart button)

Drop-down menu

The second way to build a responsive navigation menu is to create a select element. This solution is very similar to the smart button code: the behaviour above 550px breakpoint is exactly the same. The difference comes when we are below 550px, where navigation bar is replaced with a drop-down select element containing navigation items.

As in the smart button solution, the drop-down menu is built separately via jQuery script, to keep HTML code clean. Current page url (where the script is invoked from) is retrieved inside the script and the corresponding element is selected into drop-down list. A change event lister is bound to select item: when an element is selected, the browser is redirected to relative url. Clearly, this is a base example and you can add some CSS to improve its presentation if you want. The described code is linked below.

Responsive navigation menu (drop-down menu)


In this article we presented 2 techniques to build a responsive navigation menu. Thanks to CSS media queries we can retrieve user screen resolution and adapt menu appearance to offer the best experience. Of course, there are a lot of other variations and many improvements you may perform (i.e. manage a second-level menu), but if you need a simple navigation menu these solutions may be a start point.

Center div horizontally and vertically

Giorgio Bongiorni

Telecommunication Engineer with more than 5 years experience in web development and SEO campaigns. Favourite languages are HTML5, PHP5, MySql, CSS3 and jQuery.

Latest posts by Giorgio Bongiorni (see all)

Sometimes we have the necessity to center a content inside a container. It may be a text on a background picture or an image inside a box. This can be easily done via CSS if we know the height of the content, but if these value are unknown it may be a little harder.

Centering image: absolute positioning

The simplest solution is to impose the width and the height of the content, and display it with an absolute positioning at 50% into container. In this case we must define a negative margin equal to half of the content dimensions to achieve perfect centering. This solution is very effective, but it forces us to display images with a fixed size (which is not suitable in responsive web designs).

Center div horizontally and vertically (absolute)

Centering image and text: jQuery script

If we would like to create “responsive” images (say, pictures which dimensions adjust to visitor screen size) and center them into the container, absolute positioning is not suitable. In this case, we may use a jQuery script to retrieve the size of both content and container and compute the proper margin to obtain centering. This technique has the advantage to be compatible with all major browsers, works with both images and text content, but it requires an extra-call to server (at least for jQuery library) which slows down page loading.

Center div horizontally and vertically (jquery)

Centering text: table display

Handling with text is more difficult: if we resize the container, text scrolls down and increases the height of the content, making it impossible to center with a simple positioning. If we don’t want to use jQuery, a solution may be display container as a table and content as a table cell. The solution has the advantage to increase container height as the content scrolls down, but has some important drawbacks. First, the content extends to 100% width and 100% height of the container. Second, it’s impossible to define a width for content (width property in content style results ineffective): this can be fixed by defining some padding, but it sounds like a trick and not a solution.

Center div horizontally and vertically (table)

Centering text: ghost element

A nice solution for text centering without using jQuery scripts comes from an interersting post of Chris Coyer. The trick is to create a ghost element before the content with 100% height. Text is displayed as an inline-block element, and this allows us to give it desired size (also percentage values). As said, jQuery is not used and this reduces page loading time, but if user screen is too narrow, text scrolls down and exceeds container height.

Center div horizontally and vertically (ghost)


In this post, we have compared 4 techniques to center text and images inside divs both horizontally and vertically. We have first analyzed a case of fixed-size content and then considered the case of unknown content dimensions. An important section has been dedicated to text contents, which may have unpredictable height depending on visitor screen size. If you would like to ask something or propose other solutions, please let me know in comments. Thanks for your attention, see you soon!

Equal height columns

Giorgio Bongiorni

Telecommunication Engineer with more than 5 years experience in web development and SEO campaigns. Favourite languages are HTML5, PHP5, MySql, CSS3 and jQuery.

Latest posts by Giorgio Bongiorni (see all)

A common web design situation is the necessity to create columns with equal height, regardless of their content. A classic example is newspaper layout, where we have flanked columns containing articles of different lenght: we may have the necessity to color columns with a background tint, and keep them to the same height for a better-looking layout.

Table display

The first trick to solve this issue is to display columns as table cells. This technique works fine in all major browsers (including ie8) and offers the advantage to define a clear CSS with a simple class for all columns. There’s no need to specify the position of a single column or the value of its margin, we must only define the width. The disadvantage is that this solution is not very semantic: we are going back to 2000, when layouts were made with tables.

Equal height columns (table display)

Absolute positioning

Another solution is to display columns with an absolute positioning. In this case, we must wrap them with a relative-position container and define a proper left margin for each column. The trick here is to wrap all columns but the last into a class, and write the last column content directly inside the container. To display the last column properly, we must define a padding-left property into container style: this leaves free space for other columns. This solution is quite flexible, since we can swap columns order simply changing margin property, but it requires extra javascript (i.e. selectivizr) to work in older browsers (ie8).

Equal height columns (absolute positioning)

Flexible boxes

The third trick makes use of the flexbox technique. In this case, we display columns as flexible boxes. This solution has the advantage to be clear and easily customizable. For example, columns width is determined by “flex” property: 1 means that all columns are equally spread, 2 in a column style means that this column has double width of other columns. Furthermore, column ordering can be achieved in a very straight way simply setting “order” property. Unfortunately, this solution has the disadvantage to be  incompatible with ie<10, but it surely will represent a cornerstone in layout design for the next years.

Equal height columns (flexbox)


In this post, I’ve compared 3 solutions to create equal heights columns. Some of them are extremely flexible and clear but have compatibility problems, expecially with older internet explorer versions. Have you found better solutions or do you use different techniques? Let me know in comments.

2-columns layout: Fixed and Fluid

Giorgio Bongiorni

Telecommunication Engineer with more than 5 years experience in web development and SEO campaigns. Favourite languages are HTML5, PHP5, MySql, CSS3 and jQuery.

Latest posts by Giorgio Bongiorni (see all)

A problem I’ve often faced with during my projects is the creation of a 2-columns fixed-fluid layout. The first column has a fixed width, while the second column covers the remaining space into actual window size. This may be an issue when, for example, you are building website headers with the fixed-width logo and the navigation menu filling the remaining space.

Table display

A first solution is to create a container for the 2 columns displayed as a table, and display the 2 columns as table cells. This solution offers a good flexibility, because if we want to display the fixed column on the right, we can simply swap the columns in html. It also has the advantage to keep both columns to the same height regardless the width of the container. Unfortunately, it forces us to specify the width of the fixed column (otherwise columns have both 50% width and spread equally into container) and it’s not very semantic.

2-columns layout (table left)
2-columns layout (table right)

Position absolute

Another solution may be the use of absolute positioning. We create a container with relative positioning and display columns with absolute positioning.  We must define the width of the fixed column and a margin for fluid column. This solution offers the ability to swap columns via CSS without affecting HTML (see both solutions below, which share the same HTML code and differ only by css). Unfortunately, the trick does not keep both columns to the same height.

2-columns layout (position absolute left)
2-columns layout (position absolute right)

CSS calc function

A further solution is the use of CSS calc function. Thanks to this feature, available in all modern browsers, we can calculate the fluid width as the difference between container and fixed width. This trick allows to swap columns simply exchanging their CSS width properties or HTML id properties. Unfortunately, there are no IE8 fallbacks and column heights are different. Please also note that in this snippets we must avoid white spaces between HTML column elements, otherwise a 4px margin is displayed and we must keep it in count in calc values.

2-columns layout (CSS calc left)
2-columns layout (CSS calc right)

Floating div

The last solution is to specify the floating property for the fixed column and a margin for the fluid column. As for the absolute positioning, it is possible to swap columns via CSS without affecting HTML (see solutions below, with fixed column positioned on the left and on the right of container, respectively). Unfortunately, it’s not possible to keep columns to the same height and it’s necessary to specify the overflow property for container in css.

2-columns layout (float left)
2-columns layout (float right)


In this article, four possible solutions were presented to create a fixed-fluid column layout. For each solution, pros and cons were considered and analyzed. I hope this tricks may help you. If you have any doubt or if you like to propose better solutions, feel free to do it: comments are here for you!